الأمومة والأبوة وموقعهما بين الأبحاث العلمية

ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻨﺎﺀ ،ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻀﻊ ﺍﻷﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ ﻭ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺶ ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺮﺍﻥ. ﺃﻣﺎ

ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺎﺕ ‏(ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺩﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ‏) ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺮﻯ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻭ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺨﺬ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﺪﺍﺋﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ .

ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ Good Natured: the origins of right and wrong in humans and other animals ,Frans De Waal

http://www.colorado.edu/…/4999Eth…/deWaalGoodNatured1996.pdf

ﺇﻥ ﻏﺮﻳﺰﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻟﻨﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺦ ﺃﻧﺜﻮﻱ ، ﻣﺦ ﺫﻛﺮﻱ ﻭ ﻣﺦ ﺃﻣﻮﻣﻲ

Male Parental behavior in Human and nonhuman primates , N.Kransengor

ﻏﺮﻳﺰﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺃﻣﺎ، ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﻓﺘﺎﺓ ﺑﺸﻢ ﺭﺍﺋﺤﺔ ﻃﻔﻞ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺯ ﻫﺮﻣﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻛﺴﻴﺘﻮﺳﻴﻦ ‏(ﻫﺮﻣﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺐ ‏) .

How the brain processes social information , Annu Rev Neurosci

http://njc.rockefeller.edu/pdf2/InselFernald.pdf

ﻣﻨﺬ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻞ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻐﻤﻮﺭﺍ ﺑﻬﺮﻣﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻞ ﻭ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺟﺴﺘﻴﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﻬﺪﺋﺎ ﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ .

The effects of sex and hormonal status on the physiological response to acute psychosocial stress.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16139959

ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺩﺓ ﻳﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻫﺮﻣﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﻭﻛﺴﻴﺘﻮﺳﻴﻦ ﻭ ﺗﻐﻤﺮﻫﺎ ﺳﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ Euphoria ﻭ ﻳﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺍﺱ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ . ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻷﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺩﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﺎ ﺁﺧﺮﺍ ﻭ ﺗﻌﻴﺪ

ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺃﻭﻟﻮﻳﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻄﻔﻞ. ﻭ ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﺗﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻣﺎﻍ ﺍﻷﻡ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻨﺸﻂ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ

ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺸﻮﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ Multitasking.

Hippocampal morphology is differentially affected by reproductive experience in the mother.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16216005

The maternal brain

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic…/the-maternal-brain /

ﻓﻲ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻋُﺮﺿﺖ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺏ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻓﻨﺸﻄﺖ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺯ ﻫﺮﻣﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺐ .

the neural correlates of maternal and romantic love

http://kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/…/Bartels2004_maternalLove_%5b0

ﺍﻷﺑﻮﺓ :

ﺗﺤﺼﻞ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻫﺮﻣﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻫﺮﻣﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﻫﺮﻣﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﻭﺟﻴﻦ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﻡ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻣﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺏ ﻭ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻫﺮﻣﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﻻﻛﺘﻴﻦ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺭﺗﻴﺰﻭﻥ ﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺩﺓ ﺗﻘﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ

ﻫﺮﻣﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﻮﺳﺘﻴﺮﻭﻥ ﻭ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻻﺏ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻫﺪﻭﺀ ﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻋﺪﻭﺍﻧﻴﺔ .

Activational effects of testosterone on cognitive function in men.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11585606

ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ couvade syndrome

ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﻴﺐ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ %65 ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻡ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻞ .

http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=695488

ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺏ ﻭ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ

أسيل زغول-

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